Antonio Wahyu Prayogo



  • Writing 4- Assignment 2
  • Topic: “Write an essay about the endangered animals and give the solution to the problem (s)” 



An endangered animal is about the population of the animals, which is at risk of becoming extinct[1] or rare. Usually, it is caused by environmental threatening (reads: illegal logging, over hunting, etc) and predatory threatening (reads: crocodile, eagle, etc). Truly, many issues explain about the endangered animals. One of them is about a bird species, named Maleo. Therefore, I will explain about some issues that related to that animal. Those are the description about that bird species, its uniqueness, the problems that cause endangered, and the solutions.       

First, Maleo (Macrocephalon Maleo) is one of bird species in Sulawesi, exactly in the North Sulawesi (included in Gorontalo), the Middle Sulawesi, and the South East Sulawesi. Actually, it is called a Sulawesi endemic bird species because it just can be found in Sulawesi[2], especially in the tropical lowland and hill forest, but its nets in the open sandy areas or beaches. Maleo has a medium sized (approximately 55 centimeters long), and its color is black with a yellowish facial skin. Besides, there is the black crown-horns- that is on its head and the grayish blue feet, which has four long sharp claws separated by a membranous web.

The rare bird-Maleo- has some uniqueness, which make the differences to others. First, although it has wings, it does not like to fly because it prefers to move by foot. Then, it has a large egg size and its weighing is about 240 to 270 grams. Comically, it does not incubate its eggs because those bury about 50 centimeters deep in the sand near the hot springs. Next, the most interesting uniqueness is about its relationship with its couple (reads: a male Maleo). It is a monogamy[3] bird species (reads: anti polygamy) that always be loyal by its couple.  Consequently, it will not lay eggs again before its couple of dead.

On the other hand, there are some problems, which affect the Maleo’s habitat. First, the local societies who hunt that bird to be consumed. In fact, according to Nasrudin[4], they (reads: the local societies) steal the eggs, then they sell them to others (reads: local people or foreign people) about Rp7000, – to Rp50.000, – per eggs. Finally, the birds cannot pullulate or keep end up its existence. After that, predatory threatening is one of problems that have to be prevented by the government and of course by the local societies. In addition, the Maleo natural habitat has changed become a plantation area so the habitat is declining. According to the research of Maleo’s habitat, The Nature Conservancy[5] said:

“There are only four habitats of Maleo in Sulawesi, which are the Bangkiriang Wildlife Preserve in Bangsai regency, the Morowali Wildlife Sanctuary, the Pinjan Tanjung Matop Wildlife Preserve, and the Lore Lindu National Park.”

Indeed, the local governments also make a mistake when they publish the regulation. The content of the regulation is giving permission about logs exploration for people. Consequently, Maleo’s habitats are going to be bad by excessive logging. The last problem is about cost limit, infrastructure, and personnel or staff for maintaining and controlling the Maleo.

Next, for solving the problems, the government through Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam (BKSDA)[6] -The Natural Resources Conservation Agency- tries to give socialization to the local societies about the endangered animals that have to be protected from extinct threatening. They give the information (reads: the habitat, the reproduction[7], the life characteristic, etc) about Maleo as a protected species. Then, the government and the societies make a captive breeding of Maleo (reads: there are nine captive breeding aviaries) in the Lore Lindu National Park as one of actualization of their care. In addition, because of the Maleo’s populations on the wane so the government register the bird in IUCN[8] (The International Union for the Conservation of the Nature and Natural Resources) Red List and CITIES[9] (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Appendix I. Not only from the Sulawesi local government that has done endeavor for solving the problems, but also from an international organization, named Wildlife Conservation Society[10] (WCS) gives free aid by making a protected area, which is in the beach for the Maleo. WCS‘s representation, named John Tasirin said:

“We will donate US$ 12,500 for divesting the beach area from its owner. We will make a private beach for the Maleo, and also get the relationship with the local society to keep, maintain, and control the bird species.”

Hence, if we do not want to see the animals or the fauna become endangered, we should keep and maintain them. Actually, we can do some actions to show up our responsibility, such as by saving our rest money for donating; joining in one of associations that aim to save wildlife, like Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), World Wildlife Fund[11] (WWF), etc; or becoming voluntary of the non-governmental organization.  Besides, we can inform our family members, friends, or others to do something as quickly as they can for giving help to the endangered animal.





Mamonto, Tofhan. Thesis (2009), Master’s Program in Biology, School of Life Sciences and Technology-ITB


  • Internet Sources:


file:///D:/TASKS/WRITING%204/hewan%20langka/Keunikan%20Maleo%20%C2%AB%20M%20A%20L%20E%20O.htm (October 2, 2006 in Articles)

file:///D:/TASKS/WRITING%204/hewan%20langka/M%20A%20L%20E%20O.htm (October 2, 2006 in Articles)


file:///D:/TASKS/WRITING%204/hewan%20langka/Populasi-Satwa-Langka-Maleo-Semakin-Berkurang.htm (September 30, 2009, at 10:05 WIB, the writer: Hafid S. Laturaja)

file:///D:/TASKS/WRITING%204/hewan%20langka/showthread.php.htm (Copyright ® 1988 by Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye.)

^ BirdLife International (2004). Macrocephalon maleo. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 5 May 2006.; (Sulawesi Tenggara, October 14, 2008) (October 9, 2008, at 17:38 WIB) (May 15, 2009, at16:43 WIB)

[1] In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism. (

[2] It means we only find its population there.

[3] Monogamy is defined as one male mating with one female and forming a “pair bond.” (

[4]He is a Counseling Coordinator of the North Tolitoli sub district, Forestry Service of Tolitoli regency.

[5] The Nature Conservancy is a Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) – International Non-Governmental Organization- that concern in environment conservation.

[6] The Nature Conservancy is working to preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.

[7] Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. (


[8]It is s an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. It has the mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.


[9] It is an international agreement between governments, drafted because of a resolution adopted in 1973 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants.


[10] The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), formerly the New York Zoological Society (NYZS), endeavors to save wildlife and wild lands around the world through careful use of science, conservation education and through a system of urban wildlife parks. The Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) began working in Indonesia in 1965 and established a formal country program in 1991.


[11] WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by 1.2 million members in the United States and close to 5 million globally.



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